History[ edit ] For many years, a growing problem in astronomical research as in other academic disciplines was that the number of papers published in the major astronomical journals was increasing steadily, meaning astronomers were able to read less and less of the latest research findings.
During the s, astronomers saw that the nascent technologies which formed the basis of the Internet could eventually be used to build an electronic indexing system of astronomical research papers which would allow astronomers to keep abreast of a much greater range of research.
Initial development of an electronic system for accessing astrophysical abstracts took place during the following two years; in discussions took place on how to integrate ADS with the SIMBAD database, containing all available catalog designations for objects outside the solar systemto create a system where astronomers could search for all the papers written about a dating site ads nasa events object.
The creators believed this was the first use of the Internet to continue reading simultaneous querying of transatlantic scientific databases. Untilthe service was available via proprietary network software, but it was transferred to the nascent World Wide Web early that year.
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The number of users of the service quadrupled in the five weeks following the introduction of the ADS web-based service. ADS provided links to these electronic editions from their first appearance.
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Since aboutthe number of ADS users has doubled roughly every two years. ADS now has agreements with almost all astronomical journals, who supply abstracts.
Scanned articles from as far back as the early 19th century are available via the service, which now contains over eight million documents. The service is distributed worldwide, with twelve mirror sites in twelve countries on five continents, with the database synchronized by means of weekly updates using rsynca mirroring utility which allows updates to only the portions of the database which have changed.
All updates are triggered centrally, but they initiate scripts at the mirror sites which "pull" updated data from the main ADS servers. Papers are indexed within the database by their bibliographic record, containing the details of the journal they were published in and various associated metadatasuch as author lists, references and citations.
Bibliographic records are now stored as an XML element, with sub-elements for the various metadata.
Older articles have been scanned, and an abstract is created using optical character recognition software. Scanned articles from before about are usually available free, by agreement with the journal publishers. The generated files are then cached to eliminate needlessly frequent regenerations for popular articles. As ofADS contained GB of scans, which consisted of 1, article pages comprisingarticles.
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By this had grown to GB, and is expected to grow further, to about GB by The database initially contained only astronomical references, but has now grown to incorporate three databases, covering astronomy including planetary sciences and solar physics references, physics including instrumentation and geosciences references, as well as preprints of scientific papers from arXiv. Articles are assigned to the different databases according to the subject rather than the journal they are published in, so that articles from any one dating site ads nasa events might appear in all three subject databases.
The separation of the databases allows searching in each discipline to be tailored, so that words can automatically be given different weight functions in different database searches, depending on how common they are in the relevant field.
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The advent of preprint servers has, like ADS, had a significant impact on the rate of astronomical research, as papers are often made available from preprint servers weeks or months before they are published in the journals. The incorporation of preprints from the arXiv into ADS means that the search engine can return the most current research available, with the caveat that preprints may not have been peer reviewed or proofread to the required standard for publication in the main journals.
ADS's database links preprints with subsequently published articles wherever possible, so that citation and reference searches will return links to the journal article where the preprint was cited. The scripts are designed to be as platform independent as possible, given the need to facilitate mirroring on different systems around the world, although the growing use of Linux as the operating system of choice within astronomy has led to increasing optimization of the scripts for installation on that dating site ads nasa events.
The service may receive data referring to the same article from multiple sources, and creates one bibliographic reference based on the most accurate data from each source. The common use of TeX and LaTeX by almost all scientific journals greatly facilitates the incorporation of bibliographic data into the system in a standardized format, and importing HTML -coded web-based articles is also simple.
ADS utilizes Perl scripts for importing, processing and standardizing bibliographic data.
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The accurate conversion of names requires a detailed knowledge of the names of authors active in astronomy, and ADS maintains an.